Radiometric Calibration

I’m researching various topics in the GIS field for scholastic purposes, and am currently working on radar satellites and the associated radiometric calibration of their datasets. My focus is on Sentinel-1 datasets as I have access to some sample rasters. To this effect, I have resorted to debugging the Sentinel-1 Toolbox (for SNAP) using the source code posted on GitHub. I am new to this field, and it would be of immense help if anyone could elaborate on some of the basic concepts of radiometric calibration (apart from what’s present in the Sentinel-1 manuals), the formulae used in the same (Specifically the ‘computeTile’ method, calculating LUT values, retroLutVal, DN values, etc), and applying the aforementioned calibration to the raster. Much appreciated.

The calibration for S-1 is simply the application of the LUTs provided in the product. Please see the attached document.
S1-Radiometric-Calibration-V1.0.pdf (327.2 KB)