Sentinel-1A IW SLC data

I downloaded the Sentinel-1A IW SLC data, why is there IW1\IW2\IW3, when I perform Linear to dB later, the picture will appear, the image is black? Can I download the data incorrectly? If I want to perform operations such as VV/V, VV+VH, (VV+VH)/(VV-VH), how do I operate?This is the raw data bandi ,This is the band after the Linear to dBq

Have you seen these recommended steps? Radiometric & Geometric Correction Workflow

If you only want to work with backscatter intensity, you don’t need SLC products (split into IW1/IW2/IW3, the explanation is given here) and can directly download GRD products.

Please also have a look at this question: TOPSAR Deburst IW SLC vs GRD Product

thanks ,dear!I want to extract the backscattering coefficient, analyze the relationship between the backscattering coefficient and the soil salinity, and finally use it to invert the soil salinization distribution.In this case, can I use IW GRD data?

yes, absolutely.